Cycling area can be a confounder and effect modifier of the association between helmet use and cyclists’ risk of death after a crash

  • Høye, A. Bicycle helmets — To wear or not to wear? A meta-analysis of the effects of bicycle helmets on injuries. Accid. Anal. Prev. 11785–97 (2018).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Olivier, J. & Creighton, P. Bicycle injuries and helmet use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Epidemiol. 46278–292 (2017).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  • Aldred, R., García-Herrero, S., Anaya, E., Herrera, S. & Mariscal, M. Á. Cyclist injury severity in Spain: A Bayesian analysis of police road injury data focusing on involved vehicles and route environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 1796 (2020).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Knottnerus, JA & Tugwell, P. Confounding obscures our view, effect modification is part of reality. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 114v – vi (2019).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Esmaeilikia, M., Radun, I., Grzebieta, R. & Olivier, J. Bicycle helmets and risky behavior: A systematic review. Transp. Res. Pt F-Traffic Psychol. Behav. 60299–310 (2019).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Bambach, MR, Mitchell, RJ, Grzebieta, RH & Olivier, J. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: A case-control study. Accid. Anal. Prev. 5378–88 (2013).

    CAS Article Google Scholar

  • Ritter, N. & Vance, C. The determinants of bicycle helmet use: Evidence from Germany. Accid. Anal. Prev. 4395–100 (2011).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Fyhri, A., Bjørnskau, T. & Backer-Grøndahl, A. Bicycle helmets — A case of risk compensation ?. Transp. Res. Pt. F-Traffic Psychol. Behav. 15612–624 (2012).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Dagher, JH, Costa, C., Lamoureux, J., de Guise, E. & Feyz, M. Comparative outcomes of traumatic brain injury from biking accidents with or without helmet use. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 4356–64 (2016).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Jeppsson, H. & Lubbe, N. Simulating Automated Emergency Braking with and without Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Braking for cyclists: Effect of brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view on accidents, injuries and fatalities. Accid. Anal. Prev. 142105538 (2020).

  • Olivier, J., Boufous, S. & Grzebieta, R. The impact of bicycle helmet legislation on cycling fatalities in Australia. Int. J. Epidemiol. 481197–1203 (2019).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Høye, A. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants ?. Accid. Anal. Prev. 88175–186 (2016).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Olivier, J., Esmaeilikia, M. & Grzebieta, R. Bicycle helmets: systematic reviews on legislation, effects of legislation on cycling exposure, and risk compensation. https://trid.trb.org/view/1596919 (2018). Accessed June 28, 2021.

  • Amoros, E., Chiron, M., Martin, J.-L., Thélot, B. & Laumon, B. Bicycle helmet wearing and the risk of head, face, and neck injury: A French case – control study based on a road trauma registry. Inj. Prev. 1827–32 (2012).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Harlos, S. et al. Urban and rural patterns of bicycle helmet use: Factors predicting usage. Inj. Prev. 5183–188 (1999).

    CAS Article Google Scholar

  • Schmidt, CW et al. Bicycling rates and the prevalence of bicycle helmet usage in Wisconsin. WMJ 11991–95 (2020).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  • Molina-Soberanes, D. et al. Individual and environmental factors associated with death of cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain: a cohort study. BMJ Open 9e028039 (2019).

  • Macpherson, AK et al. Urban / rural variation in children’s bicycle-related injuries. Accid. Anal. Prev. 36649–654 (2004).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Amoros, E., Chiron, M., Thélot, B. & Laumon, B. The injury epidemiology of cyclists based on a road trauma registry. BMC Public Health 11653 (2011).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Boufous, S., de Rome, L., Senserrick, T. & Ivers, R. Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia. Accid. Anal. Prev. 49404–409 (2012).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Prati, G., Pietrantoni, L. & Fraboni, F. Using data mining techniques to predict the severity of bicycle crashes. Accid. Anal. Prev. 10144–54 (2017).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Kuo, C.-Y. et al. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of head-injured cyclists with and without helmets in urban and rural areas of Taiwan: A 15-year study. Traffic Inj. Prev. 18193–198 (2017).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Kaplan, S., Vavatsoulas, K. & Prato, CG Aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark. J. Saf. Res. 5075–82 (2014).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Real Decree 970/2020, of 10 November, as amended by the General Regulations of the Circulation, approved by Real Decree 1428/2003, of 21 November and the General Regulations of Vehicles, approved by Real Decree 2822/1998, of December 23, in the matter of urban traffic media. https://www.boe.es/eli/es/rd/2020/11/10/970.

  • Kim, J.-K., Kim, S., Ulfarsson, GF & Porrello, LA Bicyclist injury severities in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. Accid. Anal. Prev. 39238–251 (2007).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Hagel, BE, Romanow, NTR, Enns, N., Williamson, J. & Rowe, BH Severe bicycling injury risk factors in children and adolescents: a case-control study. Accid Anal Prev 78165–172 (2015).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Persaud, N., Coleman, E., Zwolakowski, D., Lauwers, B. & Cass, D. Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: A proportional mortality, case – control study. CMAJ 184E921 – E923 (2012).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Rivara, FP, Thompson, DC & Thompson, RS Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury. Inj. Prev. 3110–114 (1997).

    CAS Article Google Scholar

  • Elvik, R. & Mysen, A. Incomplete accident reporting: meta-analysis of studies made in 13 countries. Transp. Res. Record. 1665133–140 (1999).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Shinar, D. et al. Under-reporting bicycle accidents to police in the COST TU1101 international survey: Cross-country comparisons and associated factors. Accid. Anal. Prev. 110177–186 (2018).

    CAS Article Google Scholar

  • Hernán, MA, Clayton, D. & Keiding, N. The Simpson’s paradox unraveled. Int. J. Epidemiol. 40780–785 (2011).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Davis, GA Possible aggregation biases in road safety research and a mechanism approach to accident modeling. Accid. Anal. Prev. 361119–1127 (2004).

    Article Google Scholar

  • Official Gazette of the State, No. 289 2014. Orden INT / 2223/2014, of 27 October, which regulates the communication of information to the National Register of Traffic Accident Victims. https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/11/29/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-12411.pdf.

  • Royston, P. Multiple imputation of missing values: further update of ice, with an emphasis on categorical variables. Stata J. 9466–477 (2009).

    Article Google Scholar

  • van Buuren, S. Multiple imputation of discrete and continuous data by fully conditional specification. State. Methods Med. Res. 16219–242 (2007).

    MathSciNet Article Google Scholar

  • White, IR, Royston, P. & Wood, AM Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice. State. With. 30377–399 (2011).

    MathSciNet Article Google Scholar

  • Stata Statistical Software: Release 14 SE. (StataCorp, 2015).

  • Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published.

    Back to top button